- PinPoint Summaries
A brief introduction
PinPoint summaries are one-sided, easy-to-grasp overviews of the theories behind the strategies.
A brief introduction
Advance Organisers present the core ideas of a lesson or unit so students know what they will be learning. Being highly structured and not overloaded with details, the organisers help students put their learning in order.
The principles and strategies of better conversations with students.
Gain more teaching time and develop cooperative students by rapidly establishing routines for all classroom activities.
Arranging the desks in your classroom is a very direct way to establish efficient classroom management.
Members of Bloom’s original 1950s team have amended the model to make it less confusing, more accurate and better suited to classroom use. Many current misconceptions are remedied by the switch from the use of nouns to verbs.
Read about the wide evidence provenance of the HOW2s
Cats and Dogs is an analogy to help us understand our behaviours in communication.
Breaking down a skill is the password to excellence for all practitioners. No longer a mystery talent held only by the elite, checklists democratise mastery for all.
We all have very limited working memory. Chunking is a very practical solution to the danger of cognitive overload.
Coaching is pervasive. But it may have adopted a therapy-bias approach at the expense of skill acquisition. This PinPoint identifies coaching's origin and traces the influence of the Human Potential Movement in its development.
Unseen observations are a no-cost, low-time approach to professional development that promote deep learning through conversation with insights. Definitely work a try.
Short-term memory is our weakest cognitive link. It is easy to overload it and, so, avoiding this is a primary goal of teaching. Learn what to avoid and what to do.
A commentary on the significant changes in the CIF to start September 2015.
A short analysis of the accountabilities of leadership and management to sustain the drive to support and improve teaching. The framework of the analysis if one where the traditional organisation chart is flipped.
Constructivism is a theory of how we create knowledge and meaning. It has been mistakenly taken to be a method of teaching. Find out more.
Cooperative Learning has an effect size of well over one grade's improved learning. It also has powerful social benefits. But to be this effective, certain guidelines need to be followed.
Four leading academics from Durham university distill their knowledge about the effectiveness, or not, of CPD into a beautifully simple ten-question test.
Lunzer and Gardener's Directed Activities Related to Texts (DARTS) was a 1980s programme to break down the skills of reading for understanding. Much of it was achieved through the use of Graphic Organisers. It was revived through its promotion in the National Literacy Strategy in secondary schools.
Ericsson's 10,000 hours study alerted us that practice trumps talent nearly every time. Deliberate practice is the cornerstone of excellence and, here, is exemplified by several studies across different contexts.
A summary of The Sutton Trust on how digital technology must be integrated into good teaching techniques to have any real impact. In other words: the How not the What. Five main recommendations are clarified.
Students from disadvantaged backgrounds with limiting language skills can narrow the gap with their more advantaged peers. Teachers need to use visual strategies to make explicit and public the internal mental processes that are present in more able students.
Discover why cognitive psychologists say knowledge comes in two types and how this affects organisational learning.
A summary of some of the limitations of the evidence-based teaching movement. Understanding and accommodating such little-known aspects provides a stronger and more mature perception of the value of evidence-based teaching.
Over 20 years of research now tells us the most effective ways to train professionals. Discover the techniques to increase engagement, understanding, memory and transfer. And what to avoid, and what to drop from your current practice.
Capturing knowledge on expert teaching is problematic. Some say it's impossible while others are content with lists of competencies. What do we know about the nature of expert knowledge and how can it be shared?
When professor John Hattie compared experienced with expert teachers, he found 16 distinct differences. He also found that 3 of them accounted for 80% of the differences in effectiveness between the two sets of teachers.
There are many things teachers can do to create a learning environment where everyone feels connected, acknowledged and honoured. This PinPoint shows you how.
Perhaps the most important, and as yet hidden, aspect of learning: how to respond positively to errors.
If teaching and feedback are opposite ends of a spectrum, feedback for learning (also known as assessment for learning and formative assessment) is a mix of both, somewhere in the middle of the continuum. Discover the essentials of John Hattie's research on this central topic.
Underneath all the complexities of classroom activities, there are only four basic dynamics. Adding a visual adds much to the learning in each one.
Teachers, as Dylan William reminds us, have to turn the techniques found in the researchers meta-analyses into practical evidence. This shows the journey from global evidence to local and practical know-how.
Discover 8 different ways of setting goals. And learn the principles of successful goal setting, arrived at by Robert Marzano in his research on the subject.
Graphic Organisers, says David Costa, reveal a person's thinking processes. Perfect, therefore, for teachers modelling their thinking and for teachers to identify misconceptions in their students' thinking. Discover the main types of Graphic Organisers and a simple process for using them.
Discover Art Costa's celebrated Habits of Mind model: 16 dispositions that are attributes and determinants of intelligent behaviour. Read about what learning looks like when they're present and when they're not.
Learn how Bilborough Sixth Form College staged a successful launch of the HOW2s
How Northumberland FE College staged a World Fair, using the HOW2s as the mechanism with which to share their best practices.
The 2007 McKinsey report on global education highlighted the central place of teachers in raising standards. And that training teachers is therefore the most important challenge ahead for all education systems. But then found that traditional CPD activities didn't have the precision needed for teachers to be able to transfer successfully their learning of new methods back into their classrooms. This PinPoint shows how the addition of HOW2s optimises all CPD activities by providing the missing precision of how superior teaching techniques operate.
A practical summary of the research and advice for developing independent learning in your students.
Teachers constantly aim to influence their students for the better. Social psychologist Robert Cialdini has spent a lifetime studying how humans influence one another. Discover the 6 essential skills.
Jim Knight, creator of Instructional Coaching, contrasts 'shallow' and 'deep' coaching. Designed specifically for the education sector, this approach to coaching emphasises the technical skills of teaching and references evidence- based methods.
Find out how the research on e-learning is very pertinent to classroom teaching. Discover the principles of effective communication and explanation — the cornerstone of effective teaching.
The original learn-to-learn programme devised with research that shows students' IQ scores rose as a result of participation. This 14 sector programme works at primary perceptual and thinking processes, with the emphasis on bridging on to successful transfer of learning. Metacognition is at its centre.
Based directly on the Medical Rounds where student doctors, doctors and consultants explore and learn together. Instructional Rounds declares Michael Fullan "redefine the teaching profession". Step-by-step guides to the whole process are laid out.
25 generic knowledge-building activities you can use with any subject, for any age student.
Behind every lesson plan is a teacher's theory about how learning happens and in what sequence: a learning cycle. Discover and compare four contrasting cycles.
Matt O'Leary's research on the assumptions upon which observations are based and the evidence of their ineffectiveness.
The origin of Lexical Mapping is in the teaching of a second language, with the emphasis on vocabulary (lexical) and its meanings. The Mapping refers to the connections made between the vocabulary in the search for personal meaning. Syntax, or grammar, follows naturally as students communicate their meanings to one another.
Manipulatives are card-sorting activities that make visible learners' conceptions and misconceptions. Organised into 6 types, Manipulatives are a prime example of how expert teachers make their students' learning visible in order to assess and adapt their teaching.
A simple step-by-step way of converting a Graphic Organiser into cut-up Manipulatives, using it as a scaffold activity and, finally, checking for understanding.
Robert Marzano, the originator of publicly accessible evidence-based teaching, uses his knowledge of research to see how teachers best improve. He produces an elegant model for teachers and managers.
Mental models are the warehouses of our understanding and memory. All our learning is organised and stored there. Constructivist teaching aims to elaborate and expand students' mental models, exposing their misconceptions on the way.
Mindsets define the possibilities of our learning. Discover Carol Dweck's core distinction and their 5 areas of operation. Learn about Robert Marzano's 4-belief questionnaire.
A visual questionaire, for students or teachers, about their beliefs about learning and their responses to challenges along the learning journey. Based on the work of Robert Marzano and Carol Dweck.
There are four types of knowledge you can give your students. Some are far better for understanding and memory. Find out which are which.
Four structures to help students understand subject content and develop thinking skills.
We all understand explanations that are realistic rather than conceptual. Napkin Sketching converts ideas, concepts and processes into a human storyboard. Sketching here is drawing as communication, not as art. Enthusiastically adopted by managers for its clarity and concision.
Marshall Rosenberg's model for effective communication relationship-building has been adopted in hospitals, businesses, therapy and even in conflict-resolution in such places as Palestine and Rwanda. Remarkably simple and adaptable, this language system is worthy of close scrutiny.
Geoff Petty's PAR model (Plan-Apply-Review) is visually explained in terms of the most appropriate evidence-based teaching techniques for each stage.
Peer observation is proving to be one of the most effective ways in which teachers develop their practice. This PinPoint shows how the use of HOW2s can increase its effectiveness.
Don't kill your audiences with bullets. Learn the professional secrets to engaging presentations.
This is a summary of Doug Lemov's book on deliberate practice. It identifies 42 rules for improvement of which 10 are chosen for this PinPoint to illustrate the way HOW2s can enrich this process.
Professional conversation has long been forgotten as a crucial element in improving practice. Learn how to add rigour so it no longer is 'just talk'.
A summary of the main findings about what works best for teacher learning from the leading researcher, Helen Timperley. Discover what to add to your practice, what to extend and what to now omit. The findings challenge some cherished and established notions of best practice.
The principles behind the transformation of classrooms through the No Hands Up approach.
Feedback is the engine of learning. Much is written about giving it but very little about how to receive it. This outlines how to raise the impact of professional feedback by educating teachers on how better to receive it.
Understanding and memory are the same thing says cognitive scientist, Daniel Willingham. Discover how to exploit this with better teacher explanation and students memory.
The Stretch & Challenge focus risks being just another bureaucratic concept unless there's more than vague aspirations to it. Here's a summary of several tools and lists available to teachers to plan for and check how they're doing with this current concern.
A 6-step approach to Supported Experiments centring around the HOW2s.
John Biggs's SOLO model (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) is explained and visually depicted. It is a brilliant strategy to assess the depth of understanding and knowledge of your students. Easy to implement, it is also useable by students themselves for practical self-assessment and metacognition.
A summary of the power and relevance of HOW2s to accelerating teacher improvement.
The new HOW2 too — the Skills Exchange — offers teachers instant and comprehensive collaborative peer learning. Read how to take advantage of this outstanding contribution to professional learning.
Want to know what's behind great teaching? It's great thinking. Find out how clarifying your theory of action (why you think something is going to happen) can improve your teaching more effectively than receiving feedback on your classroom performance.
The background information on the Picture Superiority Effect and how to apply it.
Direct eye contact isn't always good communication. Discover how to communicate difficult messages without creating upset in the other person.
Taken from Matt O'Leary's book Classroom Observations, this innovative approach to observation is highly cost-effective, reduces inauthentic teacher performance and stimulates deep learning among colleagues.
Discover 35 myths that have fooled teachers, managers and inspectors for years, if not decades, in this summary of Pedro De Bruyckere's book on this topic.
Video has been a powerful tool for teacher self-awareness and professional improvement. But research has highlighted some of its limitations, such as the cognitive overload of the viewer. This PinPoint explains the way in which HOW2s can rapidly change the perception of the viewer so much more is learned from the experience.
There is a long and well-researched use of visual instructions in many fields of endeavour. But, strangely, this approach is not exploited in education. This PinPoint shows you how to.
Make students' learning visible for maximum feedback for both teacher-to-student, and student-to-teacher.